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What is Ethical Hacking?

Ethical hacking, often referred to as penetration testing or white-hat hacking, is legally breaking into computers and devices to test an organization’s defenses. It’s among the most exciting IT jobs any person can be involved with and offers a contrast with the malicious hacking exploits. Ethical hacking is crucial for assessing and improving the security posture of an organization’s information systems.

  • Key Takeaways:
  • Ethical hacking is legal and constructive hacking to find vulnerabilities from a malicious hacker’s viewpoint to better secure systems.
  • It is a crucial component for maintaining and achieving optimal information system security.
  • Ethical hackers use the same methods as malicious hackers but apply them for constructive and protective purposes.
Ethical Hacking

Understanding Ethical Hacking

Ethical hacking involves an authorized attempt to gain unauthorized access to a computer system, application, or data. Carrying out an ethical hack involves duplicating strategies and actions of malicious attackers. This practice helps to discover security vulnerabilities from a malicious hacker’s viewpoint to better secure systems.

Types of Ethical Hacking

There are several types of ethical hacking, each focusing on different aspects of security. Here are a few of them:

  • Penetration Testing: This is a simulated cyberattack against a computer system to check for exploitable vulnerabilities.
  • Security Auditing: This is an evaluation of the security of a computer system by measuring how well it conforms to a set of established criteria.
  • Post-breach Analysis: This involves analyzing the system after a security breach to understand how it occurred and proposing solutions.

The Importance of Ethical Hacking

In today’s digital age, the importance of ethical hacking has never been more pronounced. Ethical hacking provides a proactive approach to secure an organization’s information system.

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Identifying Vulnerabilities

Ethical hackers identify vulnerabilities in software to find out what information is at risk. This is crucial as it helps organizations understand potential risks in their software and work on mitigations before a malicious hacker exploits them.

Strengthening Security Posture

By identifying and addressing the security vulnerabilities, organizations can significantly strengthen their overall security posture, thereby reducing the risk of unauthorized access and data breaches.

The Process of Ethical Hacking

Ethical hacking typically involves a well-planned approach to identify vulnerabilities and risks in the information system.


The first step involves defining the scope of the attack, including the systems to be tested and the testing methods to be used.


This is the phase where the ethical hacker gathers as much information as possible about the target system to find ways to infiltrate it.


In this phase, ethical hackers try to find out vulnerabilities in the system that can be exploited, using various tools and techniques.

Ethical Hacking Tools and Techniques

Ethical hackers use a variety of tools and techniques to assess the security of information systems.

Security Scanners

Security scanners scan networks for vulnerabilities. They are crucial for identifying unprotected or misconfigured systems.

Password Cracking Tools

These tools are used to crack passwords and gain unauthorized access to systems. They are essential for testing the strength of password policies in place.

Web Application Testing Tools

These tools are used to assess the security of web applications. They are crucial for identifying vulnerabilities like SQL injection and cross-site scripting in web applications.

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